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紧固件腐蚀成因

Fasteners corrosion causes

紧固件作为结构连接固定之用,就如同人体的关节。若关节损坏,身体将会完全丧失支撑能力。在构件接合处使用了不适当的螺钉,这种做法将造成螺钉或基材加速腐蚀,使得机械强度大大下降,无法达到原来的设计需求,给建筑物带来了极大的安全隐患。那么,是什么因素导致紧固件的锈蚀呢?

Fasteners, work as the connection of structures, just like joint of body. If the joint is broken, body will lose the suport force. Improper use of screws will cause rapid corrosion of screws or base material, which lead to greatly decrease of mechanical properties and the designing requirement could not be satisfied. And it brings great satety risks Then let's talk about the factors that cause the bothering corrosion.

工业大气腐蚀

Industrial atmospheric corrosion

冶炼厂、石油化工厂、矿区或者其它工业化环境中,含有大量二氧化硫、二氧化碳,以及氮气等腐蚀气体及尘埃,我们称之为工业大气。工业大气溶入水汽、雨滴中就成为“酸雨”,这些气体溶入厂房内部的结露中,成为“自产酸雨”,粘附在钢构上,挂流在螺杆柱体,侵蚀着钢结构房屋的基体。外来的酸雨侵蚀钢屋面或墙面上的自钻螺钉,碳钢镀锌螺钉受不了腐蚀,就会生锈,直至烂断,雨水流入室内与室内的酸雨汇合成为腐蚀的根源。

Refineries, petrochemical plants, mining or other industrial environments contains large amounts of sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other corrosive gases and dust, which is called the industrial atmosphere. Industrial air is dissolved in water vapor, and raindrops become "acid rain." These gases dissolved in condensation inside the plant and it become"self-produced acid rain", which will lead to corrosion of steel structures. Galvanized carbon steel screWS are corroded by acid rain, resulting in the water leakage of buildings.

氯化物腐蚀

Chloride corrosion

氯化物腐蚀

由于海洋大气含有盐份,形成非常活跃的氯离子,具有很强的侵蚀性。海雾、氯化物会腐蚀滨海建筑的钢筋。混凝土水合作用的高碱性使钢筋处于钝化状态,阻止了腐蚀,但在高氯化物环境下,由于氯离子的渗透性强,可以穿透混凝土护层直达其中的钢筋,造成腐蚀,甚至使混凝土开裂。钢结构离海岸越近腐蚀越严重,其腐蚀速度比内陆工业大气高出许多倍。钢结构与木材接触,由于木材受潮后分泌酸性,也会使金属严重腐蚀。

Because of the ocean-atmosphere containing massive salt, there is a very active chlorine ions which are highly corrosive. Sea fog, chloride can corrode coastal steel buildings. Concrete has good corrosion resistance, but there is strong the chlorine ions penetration in the high chloride environment, which penetrating concrete covering layer lead to internal steel corrosion or even cracking concrete. The closer the building to the coast, the faster the steel structure corroded, and the corrosion rate is many times higer than in the inland industrial armoshere. Since the timber wetted produces acidoid, the steel conta cting with timber could also be severely corroded.

电化学腐蚀

Electrochemical corrosion

是指两种异质金属或金属中足以构成电位差的两极,在一种电解质相连的环境中,形成阳极金属持续失去金属电子而被腐蚀的现象,称之为电化学腐蚀。

Electrochemical reaction usually refers that two kinds of heterogeneous metal or metal is enough to constitute a potential difference of the poles, in an electrolyte of the environment,constant loss of metal electron which causes corrosion phenomenon, called the electrochemical corrosion.

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